Nancy Hashman, M.A., CCC-SLP/L
SCHOOLS AND SCHEDULE:
Mondays: St. Maximilian Kolbe School, West Chester, PA
Wednesdays: St. Agnes School, West Chester, PA
Cell Phone: 484-678-0604
I am a speech & language pathologist currently working for the Chester County Intermediate Unit in Non Public School Services. I've worked with Early Intervention, Preschool-Handicapped and School-based programs providing speech and language support. I have a Master's of Arts Degree in Communicative Disorders from West Chester University and a Master’s Degree in Social Work from the University of Iowa.
Articulation is a term used to denote the physiological movements involved in modifying the airflow in the vocal tract to produce the various speech sounds. An articulation disorder is an inability to correctly produce speech sounds–phonemes because of imprecise placement, timing, pressure, speed, or flow of movement of the lips,tongue, or throat.
Phonological Disorders are the abnormal development of the sound system of a language and the rules that govern sound combinations. This results in difficulty producing age expected speech sounds.
Fluency Disorders involve an interruption in the flow of speaking characterized by atypical rate, rhythm and repetitions in sounds,syllables, words and phrases. This may be accompanied by excessive tension,struggle behavior and secondary characteristics.
Voice Disorders involve the abnormal production of vocal quality, pitch, loudness and resonance compared to an individual’s age and/or gender.
EXPRESSIVE AND RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE
Communication is made up of two parts: receptive and expressive language. Receptive communication refers to the way a listener receives and understands a message from a communication partner. Expressive communication refers to how a person conveys a message to a communication partner by gesturing, speaking or writing. Both forms of language are essential in order to be able to communicate with others as well as to understand when others communicate with us. Language difficulties refer to a range of problems that can interfere with communication and cognition.
Language Disorders involve impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken and written language. Language disorders may include difficulty with:
• Semantics- meaning of language
• Syntax- grammatical construction of languages
• Pragmatics- social use of language, includes conversational skills
• Phonological Awareness – knowledge of the sound structure of language
• Reading, Spelling and Writing
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
1. How does a child qualify for services?
2. When will services begin?
3. How can I help my child?
4. How will I be informed of my child’s progress?
How does a child qualify for services?
All kindergarten students receive a brief test (screening)to determine articulation and language abilities at the beginning of each school year. New students and second graders are also screened for articulation skills at the beginning of the year,or as they are enrolled. This brief assessment identifies students who may require a more complete speech and/or language evaluation. Educational staff and parents may also request a speech and language screening and/or evaluation at anytime. No student receives a language evaluation without written parental authorization. Likewise, speech and language support services are provided after written parental authorization has been obtained.
When will Speech/Language Therapy begin?
During the first month of school, I am involved in the assessment of new students to the school as well as screening the kindergarten children. I also assist in other kindergarten screenings throughout the county and may not always be in the building on my assigned days. Direct speech and language therapy normally begins by the fifth week of school.
What can I do at home to help my child?
Your child will have a Speech/Language Folder that will include homework for speech and language practice. I ask that students practice a minimum of five minutes, five times a week. Children rarely make progress if they do not practice at home. Parents and students are also encouraged to visit my “useful links” section for additional materials for speech and language practice.
How will I be informed of my child’s progress?
Each student receives a Speech/Language Folder, which should be brought to school on his/her assigned speech therapy day. I provide comments in the folder regarding speech therapy activities and/or progress. Your child's Speech/Language homework is an indicator of what we are currently working on. Mid-year Reports and Year-End Update Reports are also sent home. Parent-Teacher Conferences are held at the end of the school year. Parents may request a conference at anytime. Parents are also encouraged to make appointments to observe their child’s speech therapy session.
The Internet provides access to many valuable resources for parents and students in communication disorders.
Questions and Answers about Speech Sound Disorders, by Caroline Bowen
Lisping, by Caroline Bowen
LANGUAGECommunication Disorders Defined, Psychology Today
Pragmatic Language Tips, ASHA.
Just for Kids, A Site About Stuttering, by Judy Custer
What are Vocal Nodules? By Amy Flouhouse
What It Sounds Like, Better Hearing Institute.
Teacher’s Guide for working With Hard of Hearing and/or Deaf Students, Ministry of Special Education, British Columbia